# Tag Info

16

The real numbers may be characterized in a couple of ways, let us work with the Cauchy-complete archimedean ordered field. (We need to be a bit careful how exactly we say this, see Definition 11.2.7 and Defintion 11.2.10 of the HoTT book.) The following theorem is valid in any topos (a model of higher-order intuitionistic logic): Theorem: There is a ...

15

It's not specified. When there is a serious enough candidate paper purporting to resolve P ≟ NP, a Special Advisory Committee will be formed to decide whether (and to whom) to award the prize. I presume that the Special Advisory Committee will decide whether your system of axioms is acceptable. If you assume Z-F with choice, I guarantee you they will take it....

13

That a formula is not provable can essentially be done in two ways. With some luck we might be able to show within type theory that the formula implies one which is already known to be not provable. The other way is to find a model in which the formula is invalid, and this can be quite hard. For example, it took a very long time to find the groupoid model of ...

11

Here is one possibility, but other people might use different words. I will use first-order logic as a running example. Language The language is a collection of expressions, which are syntactic entities, i.e., finite configurations without any a priori meaning. A language is described by the grammar, which determines which finite configurations are valid ...

7

No, it is not decidable. A good heuristic to answer such questions is the following: every computable map is continuous. If you could decide whether $f(x) = 0$ for all $x \in \mathbb{C}$, then the characteristic map $d$ of such a decision procedure, namely $$d : f \mapsto \begin{cases} 1 & \text{if \forall x \in \mathbb{C} . f(x) = 0}\\ 0 & \text{... 5 It's undecidable because we can interpret natural numbers (with addition and multiplication). For example, let Ind(f) be the formula:$$f(0)=1 \land \forall x \ \big(f(x)=1 \to f(x+1)=1\big)$$Now we can define the characteristic function of the set of natural numbers using its universality property as a minimal inductive function:$$Ind(h) \land \forall ...

5

This is only a partial answer (to the $PSPACE$ characterization), but I don't have the reputation to comment. $PSPACE$ has the following (equivalent) descriptive characterizations: $FO[2^{n^{O(1)}}]$, first-order logic with exponentially iterated quantifier blocks. $SO[n^{O(1)}]$, second-order logic with polynomially iterated quantifier blocks. $SO[TC]$, ...

4

The key idea here is that for any conjunction of equations $F\equiv u_1=v_1\wedge\ldots\wedge u_k=v_k$, the set $S_F$ is convex in the geometric sense, i.e. for any two points $p,q\in S_F$, all points between $p$ and $q$ are also in $S_F$. Now suppose that $F\Rightarrow G$, where $G$ is a disjunction of equations $x_1=y_1\vee\ldots\vee x_n=y_n$ (note that ...

2

This is pretty much an open problem and subject to active research. There are a few proposals available. Here are some of the latest ones: Brain computation by assemblies of neurons Christos H. Papadimitriou, Santosh S. Vempala, Daniel Mitropolsky, Michael Collins, Wolfgang Maass Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jun 2020, 117 (25) 14464-14472;...

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