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Your first question is answered in this paper: https://www.cs.cornell.edu/fbs/publications/RecSafeLive.pdf Given an LTL formula, translate it into a Büchi automaton, and remove states that have no path to an accepting state. Then, change all states to be accepting. If the language of the automaton does not change, then the property is a safety property. ...


3

Q1: Yes, every LTS is bisimilar to its unfolding, which is a tree. Q2: No, by a cardinality argument. For instance take infinite binary trees with $L=\{a,b\}$. Each tree has countable set of states and is finitely-branching, but you have uncountably many such trees, even up to bisimilarity. However you have only countably many $\mu$-calculus formulas, so ...


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For Q1, the answer is yes if we consider image-finite systems: for all node $t$ and label $a$, the number of $a$-successors of $t$ must be finite. In this case you don't even need fixpoints of the $\mu$-calculus, only the fragment called Hennessy-Milner Logic to distinguish non-bisimilar structures [HM85]. This is known as the Hennessy-Milner Theorem. ...


1

To answer your second question: there is one property that is both safety and liveness: True. With this exception, however, it is fair to say that a property is either safety or liveness or neither. "Most" properties (like yours) are actually neither, but every property can be represented by the intersection of a safety and a liveness property. I think ...


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