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You might be interested in bounded synchronization delay expressions. See [1] for details on these expressions. To sum up, they are equivalent to star-free expressions, but instead of using complement, they restrict the use of the Kleene star to certain languages: the prefix codes with bounded synchronization delay. This way, you can have your ...


5

$\beta(E_1)$ is the language $s^nx,s^{n+1}x$. This language is straightforwardly not regular, by the pumping lemma. If we assume that the language is regular, the pumping lemma tells us that there must exist some $p, q$ such that for all $n \ge p$, $s^{n+q}x,s^{n+1}x$ is also in the language. This is false, meaning that the language is not regular. A similar ...


3

Thanks to @emil's comment and this stackoverflow answer, I now know that POSIX extended regular expressions are solvable in O(n) but backreferences are at least NP-hard and maybe NP-complete.


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To simplify, let $D$ be the domain of $T$ and let $R = \{\epsilon\} \cup (\Sigma^* \setminus \Sigma^*D\Sigma^*)$. Then by definition $$ N(T) = Id_R \quad \text{and} \quad R^{obl}(T) = N(T)(TN(T))^*. $$ Here is a formal way to justify your idea. Let $(u,v) \in \Sigma^* \times \Sigma^*$. By definition, $(u,v) \in R^{obl}(T)$ if and only if $(u,v)$ can be ...


1

Hyperscan is a high-performance multiple regex matching library that uses hybrid automata techniques to allow simultaneous matching of large numbers of regular expressions across streams of data. They explained their approach here: https://www.hyperscan.io/2015/10/20/match-regular-expressions Apparently, they didn't find a fast algorithm (in the worst case) ...


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