9

For example, I think you can decide if $\lfloor\log_2|w|\rfloor$ is even in time $O(n\log n)$: you first overwrite the input string with all 1s, and then do $\log n$ passes over the string where you turn every other 1 into a 0 (while skipping 0s that are already there). You keep track of the number of passes modulo 2.


3

Well, here are a couple of observations. There's a famous PRG by Nisan that fools $\mathsf{BPL}$-type algorithms with seed length $O(\log^2 n)$. Given two-way access to the seed, Nisan's PRG can be computed in space $O(\log n)$. Therefore, every language in $\mathsf{BPL}$ can be decided by a $\mathsf{BP}^*\mathsf{L}$-type algorithm that only uses $O(\log^2 n)...


3

The answer by apolge presents the proof that it is undecidable whether an arbitrary context free grammar is undecidable. The question of whether a context free language is inherently ambiguous is a separate one. The undecidability of inherent ambiguity of a CFL was proved by Ginsburg and Ullian (JACM, January 1966). https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/321312....


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