I took a class once on Computability and Logic. The material included a correlation between complexity / computability classes (R, RE, co-RE, P, NP, Logspace, ...) and Logics (Predicate calculus, first order logic, ...).
The correlation included several results in one fields, that were obtained using techniques from the other field. It was conjectured that P != NP could be attacked as a problem in Logic (by projecting the problem from the domain of complexity classes to logics).
Is there a good summary of these techniques and results?