This question was motivated by a question asked on stackoverflow.

Suppose you are given a rooted tree $T$ (i.e. there is a root and nodes have children etc) on $n$ nodes (labelled $1, 2, \dots, n$).

Each vertex $i$ has a non-negative integer weight associated: $w_i$.

Additionally, you are given an integer $k$, such that $1 \le k \le n$.

The weight $W(S)$ of a set of nodes $S \subseteq \{1,2,\dots, n\}$ is the sum of weights of the nodes: $\sum_{s \in S} w_s$.

Given input $T$, $w_i$ and $k$,

The task is to find a minimum weight sub-forest* $S$, of $T$, such that $S$ has exactly $k$ nodes (i.e. $|S| = > k$).

In other words, for any subforest $S'$ of $T$, such that $|S'| = k$, we must have $W(S) \leq W(S')$.

If the number of children of each node were bounded (for instance binary trees), then there is a polynomial time algorithm using dynamic programming.

I have a feeling that this is NP-Hard for general trees, but I haven't been able to find any references/proof. I even looked here, but could not find something which might help. I have feeling that this will remain NP-Hard even if you restrict $w_i \in \{0,1\}$ (and this might be easier to prove).

This seems like it should be a well studied problem.

Does anyone know if this is an NP-Hard problem/there is a known P time algorithm?

*A sub-forest of $T$ is a subset $S$ of nodes of the tree $T$, such that if $x \in S$, then all the children of $x$ are in $S$ too. (i.e. it is a disjoint union of rooted sub-trees of $T$).

PS: Please pardon me if it turns out that I missed something obvious and the question is really off-topic.

  • $\begingroup$ I strongly suspect this has an easy answer, but it's still a reasonable question. $\endgroup$ Feb 14 '11 at 7:19

Similar to the solution for a binary tree, you can solve it in polynomial time on a tree without degree restriction: First, generalize the problem such that every node also has a "count" $c_i\in\{0,1\}$, and the problem is to find a subforest $S$ of count $k=\sum_{i\in S} c_i$. Generalize the dynamic programming approach to this version (it still works with a table, given a fixed count $C$, what is the minimal weight subforest in the subtree having count precisely $C$)

Keep the original tree with nodes of count 1. Every node $v$ with degree greater than 2 is split into a binary tree with deg$(v)$ leaves (the shape does not matter). The new nodes have count and weight 0. Solve the problem on the new tree. When reading out the solution ignore any new node; this will still be a subforest of the same weight. Because any original subforest translates into a new subforest of the same weight, the found subforest is optimal.

  • $\begingroup$ You have to adapt the parameter $k$ to get the equivalence of the optimal solutions. $\endgroup$
    – Marc Bury
    Feb 14 '11 at 11:19
  • $\begingroup$ Good point. I'll change my answer accordingly. $\endgroup$
    – Riko Jacob
    Feb 14 '11 at 11:27

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